Universitatea „1 Decembrie 1918” din Alba Iulia - Centrul de Cercetare a Imaginarului Speculum
Centrul de Cercetare a Imaginarului Speculum












Maria-Ana TUPAN,The Shakespearean Search for Archetypes, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020



Professor Maria-Ana Tupan is currently appointed to the Doctoral School of Alba Iulia University, Romania. A Senior Fulbright Grantee in 1994-5, she is the author of 17 books, several book chapters and numerous articles. Her publications include The Key to Change. Interdisciplinary Essays in Cultural History (2017); The Kantian Legacy of Late Modernity (2016); Relativism/ Relativity: The History of a Modern Concept (2013); Modernism and Psychology. An Inquiry into the Epistemology of Literary Modernism (2009); and Genre and Postmodernism (2008).










The starting point for this long essay was the need to clarify the nature of archetypes, which are often grouped together across categorical distinctions. One speaks, for instance, about mythical, religious, cultural, etc. archetypes in a breath. Here, I am trying to retrieve the original significance of this concept, and its Destruktion, to use Heidegger’s title of a famous lecture delivered in 1920, took me back to the three-layered realizations of the paradeigma (original model) in Plato: noetic (the model created by the Nous), its intellectual perception and embodiment by the Demiurge, and his creation of the sensible world. Whereas the mirror is the symbol of a universal mind/ consciousness, discourse bridges epistemic ideas and sensible contents according to local codes. Ideas (Plotin’s uranic or intellectual forms) are thus inscribed in semiotic systems which vary from culture to culture. Shakespeare will turn to Ouroboros in ancient Egypt, to Sophia in Hellenistic Greece and to the Lamb of the Revelation in Christiandom as localized representations of the same idea of spiritual rebirth out of the snares of matter. There is no universal mirror of ultimate revelations, only mirrors opening a locus in history to a heaven of eidetic forms doubled by a locus of the inscription of a culturally determined copy. In this way, the ghostly paradigms of the mind receive a habitation and a name.